RISHI LITERATURE AND MATHEMATICAL CALCULATION OF TIME

4 Jul

WHY SHOULD THIS VERY HOUR BE LABELLED THAT OF ERA JUNCTION?

With reference to mathematical calculation of time the word ‘Yuga’ or era is utilized in many ways. In those days when particular trend is in vogue it is called in that particular manner. Examples are Rishi Era, Colonial Era and People’s Era. The all round progress, peace and apt management in the days of Ramrajya or Ram’s Rule was well renowned as Satyuga or Golden Era. A struggle oriented aspect of Krishna’s humungous India Rebuilding Program was termed Mahabharat. During King Parikshit’s time Kaliyuga or Dark Age manifested and a description is given in Puran or Indian mythology regarding the king’s utterances. Even today we talk of Computer age, Robot Age and Scientific Age. Many authors conjoin the word Yuga to their writings. As an example is Yashpal Jain’s ‘Yuga Bodha’. Over here the word Yuga means period in time. It means a time period that is noteworthy or an era which connotes a Yuga.

The calculations of eras are carried out in many ways. Amongst these are calculations for 1000 years. Generally the atmosphere changes every 1000 years and noteworthy changes are seen in various traditions. The end of 20th century and commencement of the 21st century is looked upon as end of one era and sacred commencement of a new era.

In the same way in Panchangs or almanacs there are discussions of so many beliefs related to commencement of Samvatsars. According to one school of thought an era spans over millions of years. On this basis we can say that billions of years have lapsed by ever since human civilization commenced and that it will take more than thousands of years for the current Kaliyuga or Dark Age to end. Yet based on available records historians opine that human evolution is not greater than 1.9 million years and this has been further proved using modern scientific technology.

At the time of calculating time negation is generally due to a flaw in its presentation. In that era calculation mentioned in various texts by partitioning the time of revolution of the sun into 4 major parts 4 Deva Yugas have been envisaged. One Deva Yuga is said to be of 432,000 years. On this basis a description of the end of Kaliyuga or Dark Age mentioned in religious texts very much correlates to the present times.

It is highly possible that under such conditions of contradictions people may not easily have faith in this mathematical calculation of time hence over here we will say that the word ‘Yuga’ means that period of time which is special. This very sentiment lies hidden within the Yuga Nirman Yojana movement. Times are about to change and in it this is clearly witnessed.

Each period of junction time has its own importance. Sunrise and sunsets are called Sandhikal or time of junction. Both these hours are called times of Parva or festival. Those who harbor deep faith in spiritual practices think it important to meditate at these 2 hours. It is at such times of junction that we hear bells of Artis in temples and Ajan in mosques.

At the point where 2 major seasons meet i.e. summer and winter there manifest 2 Navratris of Ashwin and Chaitra months as per Hindu calendar. Both these time periods are said to be festivals of good merit. In this time period devotees perform intense spiritual practices.

The end of night and dawn of day is called Prabhat Parva. In this time period everyone is full of zest. Flowers bloom, birds chatter and every creature sets off in enthusiasm to execute their required tasks. The same holds true for the coming 1000 years. The 21st century too is manifesting with its auspicious message. We must harbor hope only of a bright future manifesting the world over.

When night is about to end darkness becomes more intense. When a flame lamp is about to gets doused its flickering becomes more potent. The breathing of those dying becomes speedier and heart beats too become fast. The time of ending verily is akin to this.

The general belief regarding end of Kaliyuga or Dark Age and commencement of Satyuga or Golden Era is that the time period between 1989 and 2001 spanning 12 years is Sandhikal or time of junction. In it both progress based on human effort and destruction due to influence of Prakriti or nature will work in tandem. This time of 12 years can be called a social era. If this period of junction is believed to be of 12 years it cannot be said to be an overstatement.

At the end of every 12 years various types of changes set in whether it is humans, plant kingdom or the entire cosmos. Generally each cell of the human body undergoes replacement every 12 years. Since this process is totally internal hence it cannot be seen with the gross eyes yet it is a scientifically proven fact.

While mathematically calculating time, the number 12 is given chief importance. The solar system along with entire space has been partitioned into 12 Zodiac Signs. The planetary calculations of Panchang and astrology are based on this. After studying this, an astrologer finds out as to what will be the nature and activities of future times? Everyone knows that the Pandavas were sent to exile for 12 years. Even austerities and very important applications of sanctification/atonement indicate the deep import and special nature of 12 years time span. On this basis if the present 12 years are deemed the junction time of great upheaval then there is no contradiction perceived.

Some hard core Pandits/scholars opine that a Yuga or era constitutes of .4 million 32 thousand years. Thus its 1 leg would be of .1 million, 8 thousand years. As per this calculation it will take another .3 million 24 thousand years for a new era to manifest.

On analyzing contemporary world situations the above does not seem true. In reality everywhere scriptural injunctions have special meanings but when they are erroneously studied blind beliefs start spreading everywhere. The injunction is not erroneous but the interpretation is flawed. Thus they must be properly understood and errors must be uprooted.

On noting varying speeds of circumambulation of different stars/planets and their varied results influencing planet earth the time span of the word ‘Yuga’ varies. In Vajas Samhita very clearly Human Era and Demigods Era are said to be separate:

Shrutakarna Om sam prathastamatvagira devyamanusha (11/111).

In the Taiteriya Samhita Yuga is spoken of as:

Ya jata aushadhayo devenyaswiyugam pura.

In Rigaved Jyoti Paath the Yuga of Prajapati Brahma is said to be of 5 Samvatsars:

Pancham sanvatsaramaya yugadhyaksham prajapatim.

Yugasya dwadashabdani tatra tani brihaspate.

Tishyadicha yuga prahurvasithatri parasharaha.

Brihaspatistu saumyanta sada dwadash varshikam.

MEANING: When Brihaspati enjoys 12 Zodiac Signs only then 1 Yuga manifests. One Zodiac Sign is of 1 year and hence the Yuga of 12 Zodiac Signs is of 12 years. In the same way as per calculations of sun and moon there is a fair bit of difference as far as the time span of a Yuga is concerned. Scientists have conducted research wherein the Antardasha of the sun changes. These 12 years is its 1 Yuga.

Wherever 1 Yuga is said to constitute of .4 million 32 thousand years there one does not find any sort of such data regarding era time span calculation in Rishi literature.

Regarding the above in Manu Smriti ( 1/67-69) it has clearly been stated:

Bahyasyatu kshapahasya yatpramanam samarutaha.

Ekaikashe yuganantu kramasharstrannarbadhata.

Chatwaryahu sahasrani varshanantu kritam yuga.

Tasyatavat shati sandhya sandhyashashcha tathavidhaha.

Iteyereshu sa sandhyeshu sa sandhyasheshu cha tripu.

Ekoyayena vartante sahasrani shatani cha.

MEANING: That Yuga wherein during the day and night of Brahmaji the world is created and destroyed, is of this type: Satyuga or Golden Era of 4800 years in which there is a Purva Sandhya of 4 thousand years and 4 hundred years and Uttar Sandhya of 400 years. In the same way Treta is of 6 hundred years, Dwapar of 2400 years and Kaliyuga or Dark Age of 1200 years. The astrologer Medhateeth must have thought that Kaliyuga has passed by unto me for so many thousands of years hence it cannot be of 1200 years. As a result he studied Shrimad Bhagwat’s Canto 12, Chapter 2 and verse 34.

Divyabdanam sahasrante chaturthetu punaha kritam.

Bhavishyati yada nrinam man atma prakashkam.

MEANING: At the end of 4000 divine years meaning in 4000 divine years (Kaliyuga passed by) and then Satyuga or Golden Era will arrive which will enlighten the psyche and soul of world humanity.

In this verse one notes the word Divya. Astrologer Medhatithi believed the meaning of the word Divya as demigods and till today majority of scholars too believe thus. Since 1 day of demigods is equal to 1 year of human beings Medhatithi out of illusion said Kaliyuga has 1200 years and by looking upon it as demigods’ year he multiplied it by 360 so as to render it 432000 and opined that this is the time period of Kaliyuga or Dark Age which is totally erroneous. The word Divya can never mean demigods. The proof of this can be found in Rigveda (2/164/46).

Indam mitram varunamagni mahuhu ratho divyaha sasurpano garutman.

MEANING: Sun which is fire in form is called Indra, Mitra and Varun. That itself is Divya Garuda and Garutman.

This Mantra is also found in Nirukta Daivat Kand (7/18). In it the creation of the term Divya Shakti is believed to be thus: ‘Divyo divijo’ which means that which manifests in Divi is called Divya. Divi is called ‘Dya’. In the Naighantuk Kand 12 names of days have been written and in it ‘Dyu’ also means day. Hence now Divya means that which appears in day time. And it is known to all of us that only the sun appears in the day time. Thus Divya means sun.

In the Rigveda Mantra (1/16/3/10) “Irmantasaha silik…………divya majmashwa” one finds the term “Ashwo agnirdevata” which means a ‘horse of fire’ or sun. Even here it is the sun that has been described. Regarding this Mantra Nirukta opines that the term Divya is created from “Divya divijo”. So it is the same meaning. That which manifests in the day is the Divya sun and it is also clearly written that “Asatyadityastuti” which means that with this name the sun has been eulogized. In Vedas sun is called Divya and never can we call demigods as Divya. These are 2 very important proofs from the Vedas.

Even from the standpoint of Sanksrit Vyakran or grammar the word Divya cannot mean demigods. In Divya Dhatu if you add the Pratyaya ‘Swortheyat’ the word Divya is created. Its creation is “Divi bhavam divyan”, meaning that which appears in Divi is Divya and in day, only the sun manifests. Hence Divya can only be the sun. Divi is called Dyu and Dyu is called day. The word Devta or demigods is created from other aphorisms called “Devatal” etc and thus there is no relationship between the words Divya and Devta or demigods. The way in which both words viz. Divya and Devta are created is totally different.

In fact Kulluk while commenting on Manu Smriti (1/71) has totally refuted this saying “Etasya shlokasyado yade tanmanusham chaturyugam pariganitam etadevanam yuga muchyate”. It means that all 4 Yugas are that of human beings and it is equal to 1 Yuga of demigods. Thus Satyuga will be of 4800 years and Kaliyuga will be of 1200 years.

Medhatithi has written that 4 Yugas are that of demigods and that its years are Deva years. This observation has been challenged by Kulluk Bhatta 500 years previously.

In reality the north south movement of sun is called Divya years whose speed is 360 in number. It means 6 months of Uttarayan and 6 months of Dakshinayan together constitute 360 days-nights of human beings. These are then called Divya years.

Thus Divya cannot mean years of demigods. Hence if we do not multiply 360 with 1200 what will remain is 1200 which is the time span of Kaliyuga.

In the Bhavishya Parva of Harivansh Puran too Yugas have been calculated thus:

Ahoratram vibhajyano manav laukikam param.

Samupadaya gananam shrunu sankhya mandiram.

Chatwaryaiva sahasrani varshananukrit yugam.

Tavacchasi bhavetsandhya sandhyashashcha tathanrip.

Trini varsha sahasrani tretasya sparimanataha.

Tasyashcha trishati sandhya sandhyashashcha tatha vidhaha.

Tatha varsha shasre dwai dwaparam parikirtitaha.

Tasyapi dwishati sandhya sandhyanshashchaivatadwiyaha.

Kalivarsha shasram va sankhyatotra manishibhihi.

Tasyapi shatik sandhya sandhyashashcha tathavidhaha.

MEANING: O Arindam! Please listen to the calculation of Yugas as per the categorization of day and night in the world of human beings. One Kritayuga is of 4000 years its Sandhya is of 400 years and its Sandhyansh too is of 400 years. Treta is of 3000 years and both its Sandhya and Sandhyansh too are of 300 years each. Dwapar is of 2000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyansg both are of 200 years each. Scholars opine that Kaliyuga spans for 1000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyansh are of 100 years each.

Both in the Ling Puran and Shrimad Bhagwat text too one finds similar calculations of Yugas. In the 3rd Canto of Shrimad Bhagwat (3/1/19) it is said:

Chatwari trini dwai chaike kritadishu yathakramam.

Sankhyatani shasrani dwi gunani shatani cha.

MEANING: In Krita etc Yugas of 4, 3, 2 and 1 the number keeps increasing 200% sequentially. What it means is that if 800 years are added to 4000 years of Kritayuga it becomes 4800 years. In the same way one measures the time span of the remaining 3 Yugas. In certain places for social behavior of humans 1 Yuga is believed to be of 12 years. If this is multiplied by 1000 a Devyuga is created in which all 4 Great Yugas are included. When this Devyuga of 12 years is multiplied by 1000 one day of Brahma spanning .1 billion .2 million years emerges wherein the world’s creation and destruction takes place. In the Bhagwad Geeta (8/17) Lord Krishna speaks of this very Yuga:

Sahasra yugaparyanta mardhyad brahmano viduhu.

Ratri yuga sahasrantam tehoratra vidojana.

People who in principle know day and night understand that the time span of 1000 Great Eras constitute Brahma’s 1 day and his 1 night too is of 1000 Yugas or Eras. Lokmanya Tilak while clarifying its meaning, writes that a clear analysis of calculations of Yugas is mentioned in texts like Mahabharat, Manu Smriti and Yasknirukta. According to Lokmanya Tilak “Our Uttarayan is 1 day of demigods and our Dakshinayan is their 1 night”. In Smriti texts and Samhitas of astrology based scriptures it is found that demigods dwell on the Mount Meru or North Pole. It means that 2 Ayans of 6 months each which is 1 year of humans equals to 1 day and 1 night of demigods. Thus 360 years of humans equals to 360 day-night or 1 year of demigods. There are 4 Yugas viz. Krit, Treta, Dwapar and Kali. The mathematical calculations of Yugas is: Krityuga has 4000 years, Treta has 3000 years, Dwapar has 2000 years and Kali has 1000 years. But as soon as one Yuga ends the next Yuga does not commence immediately and that between 2 Yugas there is a Sandhikal or junction time. Thus before and after Kritayuga there is a junction period of 400 years, before and after Treta there is a junction period of 300 years, before and after Dwapar  there is a junction period of 200 years and before and after Kali there is a junction period of 100 years. Thus totally the Sandhikal or junction period of all 4 Yugas is 2000 years. These 2000 years and 10000 years of 4 Yugas as mentioned in Sankhya philosophy adds up to 12000 years (Geeta Rahasya Bhumika page 193).

As per this calculation it is clear that present times are of Sandhikal or junction period. In ancient literature our history has been classified into 5 Kalpas.

1)      Mahat Kalpa is of .1 million 9 thousand 8 hundred years. By starting from Vikramiya Purva to 85800 years Purva.

2)      Hiranyagarbha Kalpa. From 85800 Vikramiya Purva to 61800 years Purva.

3)      Brahma Kalpa. From 60800 Vikramiya Purva to 37800 years Purva.

4)      Padam Kalpa. From 37800 Vikramiya Purva to 13800 years Purva.

5)      Varah Kalpa. From 13800 Vikramiya Purva it is continuing in our present times.

Till now the Manvantars of Swayambhu Manu, Swarochish Manu, Uttam Manu, Tamaas Manu, Revat Manu, Chakshush Manu and Vaivaswat Manu of Varah Kalpa have already passed by and as of now we are witnessing the Antardasha of Vaivaswat and Savarni Manu. In the Kalki Puran it is written that when in Varah Kalpa Savarni Manu’s Daksha, Brahma, Rudradeva and Indra Savarnis’ Manvantar passes by an Avatar shall manifest and on earth when the junction period (Sandhikal) of Kaliyuga shall end Satyuga or Golden Era shall dawn. Since Savarni Manu commences from Vikram Samvat it happened 5730 years previously. It was after Manvantar of Indra Savarnis that it written that Lord Kalki shall manifest and that Kalki Samvat will come in vogue. This commences from the birth of Kalki and its time period is around Vikram Samvat 4970. For information about Kaliyuga Samvat King Pulakeshin (II) Chalukya had asked his wise astrologers to make apt calculations. In carvings on rocks in Ihol region of South India it is mentioned around the years Samvat 1969-70. From this it is proved that manifestation of Lord Kalki so as to combat Buddhist influence took place around Samvat 1969-70. With reference to this historic data unearthed by Ancient Historical Research Institute (Mathura, UP, India) is very important. Their research scholars have accepted the above mentioned data as true and in its report while writing regarding astrological calculations opines that these times correspond to Tamomaya (darkness) Sandhikal or junction period of Brahmaratra.

In the 2nd Canto of Shrimad Bhagwat a clear indication is given regarding completion of Kaliyuga or Dark Era:

Yada devarshayaha saptamghasu vicharanti hi.

Tada pravrittastu kalirdwadashabda shatatmakaha…… 31.

Yada maghabhyo yasyanti purvashadha maharshayaha.

Tada nandat prabhrityesha kalirvriddhigamishyati…… 32.

Yasmin krishno divam yatastaaminneva tadahani.

Pratipannam kaliyugamiti prahuhu puravidaha…… 33.

MEANING: When Saptarshis (stars) came to Magha galaxy Kaliyuga commenced and when Saptarshis will enter Purvashadh galaxy then in 1200 years in the times of King Nanda Kaliyuga shall mature. As soon as Lord Krishna returned to his divine abode from this world, Kaliyuga or Dark Age commenced.

At present Saptarshi stars are in Kritika galaxy. There is data available saying that they dwell in 1 galaxy for 100 years. When they were in Magha Kaliyuga commenced. Till now for once they have gone to 27 galaxies or Nakshatras. Thus from Magha to Revati it is 18. A complete single cycle of 27 and up till Kritika it is 3 which means they have gone to totally 48 Nakshatras or galaxies. In this manner Kaliyuga ends in Samvat 2000 on Shravan Krishna moonless night or Amavasya.

The exact time of Kaliyuga ending is found in the following verses:

Yada yandrashcha suryashcha tatha tishya brihaspati.

Eka rashau sameshyanti tada bhavati tat kritam.

MEANING: When at the same time moon, sun and Jupiter enter Pushya Nakshatra and come in one Zodiac Sign, Kaliyuga ends so that Satyuga or Golden Era can manifest. This Yoga or time corresponds to 1st August 1943 as per Shravan Krishna Amavasya of Samvat 2000 years.

In the historical text Mahabharat (Van Parva, Chapter 190, verses 88/89/90/91) too, a similar description is given:

Tatastumul sanghate vartmane yugakshaye.

Dwijati purvako lokaha kramena prabhavishyeti.

Devaha kalanterenyasminyunarloka vivraddhaye.

Bhavishyati punardevamanukulam yadricchaya.

Yada chandrashcha suryashcha tatha tishya brihaspati.

Ek rashau sameshyanti prapatsyati tada kritam.

Kal varshi cha parjanyo nakshatrani shubhani cha.

Kshemam subhikshamarogyam bhavishyati niramayam.

MEANING: At the time when the present era ends dire events shall manifest and slowly the progress of high class people shall augment. After a short time span as per the wishes of Almighty God the time that shall augment world glory shall arrive. When in Tishya moon, sun and Jupiter shall arrive in one Zodiac Sign with equal Anshas (portions) Satyuga shall re manifest. Thus rains will pour down in a timely manner and everyone will live happily while experiencing good health.

In the above lines is mentioned the word Tishya. It has 2 meanings viz. Pausha month or Pushya Nakshatra. Those who accept the meaning of Tishya as Pausha month opine that Satyuga has already appeared a few years back. As per the opinion of thos accepting the meaning as Pushya Nakshatra this Yoga has arrived in Shravan Krishna Amavasya Samvat 2000.

Elsewhere in the text of Mahabharat (Van Parva, 188, 22-26) it is written:

Chatwaryahuhu sahasrani varshanam tat kritam yugam.

Tasya tavacchati sandhya sandhyashashcha tathavidhaha.

Trini varsha sahasrani tretayuga mahochyate.

Tasya tavacchati  sandhya sandhyashashcha tataha param.

Tatha varsha sahasre dwapare parimanataha.

Tasyapi dwishati sandhya sandhyashashcha tatha vidhaha.

Sahasramekam varshanam tataha kaliyuga smritam.

Tasya varsha shatam sandhi-sandhyanshashcha tataha param.

Sandhi sandhyanshayostulyam praman mupadharay.

MEANING: It is said that Satyuga or Golden Era is of 4000 years. Its Sandhya and Sandhyansha are of 400 years each (It means that Satyuga totally constitutes of 4000+400+400=4800 years). Tretayuga is of 3000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyansha are of 300 years each. Thus totally Treta has 3000 + 300 + 300= 3600 years. Dwapar spans 2000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyansha are of 200 years each. Thus totally it is of 2400 years. Kaliyuga is said to be of 1000 years and along with its Sandhya and Sandhyansha of 100 years each it adds up to 1200 years.

The same above topic has been discussed in Ling Puran:

Chatwaricha sahasrani manushani shilasan.

Ayuhu kritayuge viddhi prajanamiha su vrat…… 9

Tataha kritayuge tasmin sandhyanshepra gatetuvai.

Padavashishto bhavati yugadharmabhasu suvartaha…… 10

Chaturbhagai kahinantu tretayug manuttamam.

Kritardha dwaparam viddhi tadardha tishyamuchyate…… 11

Trishati dwishati sandhya tatha chaika shatimune.

Sandhyansha kantitha shevam kalpeshwevam yuge yuge…… 12

MEANING: Satyuga equals to 4000 years of human beings. When the final Sandhyansha of Satyuga passes by 3 parts of Dharma or righteousness remain. Tretayuga is of 3000 years, Dwaparyuga is of 2000 years and Kaliyuga is of 1000 years. Adding up all their Sandhya and Sandhyansha they correspond to 800, 400 and 200 years respectively.

Regarding the concept of time calculation (Kalnirnay) Lord Veda Vyas has opined as follows in the 4th Prapathak of Vedant Darshan:

Dwidhasumantaha kramarddhitar bijabhyam……. 10

BHASHYA-DWIDHETI:

Asumantaha praninaha kramaddhi tar bijabhyo kramonnati kramavanatyoha shakti visheshabhyam. Tatrayasya bahulyam bhogabhumau dwitiyasya karma bhumau drashtavyam. Atracha manujeshu ye kramarddhishi jinastesham pragunnatir numiyatam viyati vihanganam vordhwagaminam.

MEANING: The world of human beings is of 2 types. The 1st is of Kramonnati and the 2nd is of Kramavanati. The 1st involves people who progress sequentially and is said to be the land of sense object enjoyment (Europe, USA etc) and 2nd predominates with people believing in Karma or action (India). At first those of Kramonnati seeds undergo downfall and later they start progressing step by step. Those with seeds of Kramavanati first progress and then undergo downfall. From this we can conclude that those Indians who have fallen today were advanced previously and those aliens who appear advanced today had experienced downfall previously. Its example is akin to birds flying in the sky. Amongst these those who are flying higher step by step are progressing and those that are flying downwards are undergoing a downfall.

Tadvartiyugani vyastaika kramabhyam.

BHASHYA (COMMENTARY):

Tadvatoriti na dwato kramarddhi tarvijatorvyastaik kramabhyam vyutkramanukramabhyam yugani satyatreta dwapar sanjnakani pratibhantirtyathaha tathacha kramonnati bijanam kalyadi satyantani kramadanati bijanam tu satyadi kalpantani yuganivarttante.

MEANING: The Yugas of both viz. Kramonnati and Kramavanati is of 2 types called Vyutkram and Anukram. For Kramavanati there are 4 Yugas viz. Satya, Treta, Dwapar and Kali. Bang opposite to this for Kramonnati the 1st is Kaliyuga and then step by step after progress takes place a great state of Satyuga or Golden Era manifests. From this a conclusion can be made that at first India possessed a Satyuga state which later got converted to Treta, Dwapar and Kali respectively. A little progress commenced for Kramonnati in the beginning (Kaliyuga) and in future Yugas, after increasing sequentially, in present times reached great heights. Now there are clear indications of its falling down. It is not erroneous to infer that now in the land of India Kaliyuga shall end and Satyuga is about to dawn.

This then is an indirect method of elucidating Yugas wherein instead of directly calculating time periods one infers those situations via contemporary times prevalent then. In Indian scriptures this methodology too is in vogue. Following is its example:

Regarding this in the text Aitereya Brahman one chapter is very emotionally sensitive and full of wise teachings. On seeing a Rishi in gloom and despair, Indra adises him thus:

Kalihi shayano bhavati sanjihanastu dwaparaha.

Uttishthantreta bhavati kritam sampadyate charan.

MEANING: At that time when society or an individual lies unconscious in sleep, meaning they are spiritually ignorant, that time is Kaliyuga or the Dark Age. When after sleep ends and they yawn (they start gaining consciousness of surroundings) it is Dwaparyuga. Then when they get up to sit it is Tretayuga. When on standing up they start walking, meaning they zealously commence their righteous duties, know that Kritayuga or Satyuga has arrived.

In order to obstruct an imminent war Krishna while wisely advising says:

Yada drakshasi sangrame shwetashwam Krishna sarthim.

Endraastram vikurvanabhuvam chapyagni marute…… 6

Gandivasya cha nirghosham visfurjitibhivashanehe.

Na tada bhavita treat na kritam dwaparam na cha…… 7

Yada drakshasi sangrame kuntiputra yudhishthiram.

Japa homa samayuktam swam rakshantam maha chamum……8

Adityamiva durgharsha tapantam shatruvarhinim.

Na tada bhavita treat na kritam dwaparam na cha…… 9

MEANING: When in a war we shall see charioteer Krishna ferocious like inferno and witness Arjun in wrath using his Gandiva bow and arrows menacingly at that time neither will Treta, nor Satyuga nor Dwaparyuga remain. When we shall see that son of Kunti called Yudishthira who performs Japa and Yajnas so as to shine brilliantly like the sun protect his army and burn to ashes his enemy’s army, at that time neither will Treta, nor Satyuga nor Dwaparyuga remain.

In the above lines scriptural scholars by describing the mental state of today’s times subtly have tried to elucidate time.

In the Harivansh Parva of text Mahabharat in words that are even more clear those signs of Era Transformation have been listed which today is open for all to see:

 Paraspar hatashwashcha nirakandya sadukhita.

Evam kashta manupraptaha kali sandhyanshake tada.

Prajakshyam praysyeti sadhyam kaliyuge na hi.

Kshino kaliyuge tasmintataha kritayugam punaha.

Prayatsyeta yathanyayam dwabhavadevananyatha.

Ite chanye cha bahavo divya devagunairyutaha.

Pradurbhava puraneshu giyante brahmatevadibhihi.

Vishwatva shrunu mey vishnorhariratvam cha kriteyuge.

MEANING: When Kali ends at the time of its Sandhyansh intense hardships manifest. Discontent augments in people and terrible wars are fought wherein world public gets destroyed. Before Satyuga manifests at least once nadirs of sins and chaotic situations are noted. When this happens know that Kaliyuga is about to end. Later reformed world situations manifest as Kritayuga and divine qualities manifest in humanity. At that time as per scriptural injunctions people become spiritual and divine in nature.

In Harivansh Purana Kaliyuga or Dark Age has been described thus:

Shasya chaura bhavishyanti tatha chaila paharinaha.

Bhakshya bhojya praharashcha karanda nanshva harinaha…… 22

Chaura shchaurasya hantaro hanta hartu bhavishyati.

Chaura shchaur kshaye chapi krite kshemam bhavishyati…… 23

MEANING: People will loot food, clothes etc. Each robber will rob another robber and will murder each other. Thus when robbers will kill each other peace will set in. At that time:

Nihsare kshubhit loke nishkriye kantar sthite.

Naraha shrayishyanti banam kar bharam prapidata…… 24

MEANING: People the world over thinking themselves to be useless and idle will become sorrowful and will wonder as to what should they do and not do. At that very hour people will be taxed so heavily by the government that out of strife they will head for the forest. At that time:

Naiva shunya na cha shunya bhavishyati vasundhara.

Goptar chanya goptaraha prabhavishyanti sahsvrinaha…… 33

MEANING: It can neither be said that the earth has become empty and nor can it be said that earth is full of human beings. At that time only those people shall be present who are able to dwell in Himalayas and forests because so many human beings shall die when terrible wars are waged. Those few people that shall remain shall reside in forests or vicinity of Himalayas. Amongst these those who possess weapons shall become security personnel to protect others and a few shall harass others.

Bhavishyati tanda tejam rogai rairindriyaha sakshayaha.

Ayuhu prakshay sam rodha dwivadaha prabhavishyati…… 41

Sushrushave bhavishyanti sadhunam darshanaretaha.

Satyam cha prati pashyanti vyavaharopa sankshayat…… 42

Bhavishyanti cha kamanam labhadharma shilinaha.

Karishyanti cha sankocham swapathya kshaya piditaha…… 43

Evam shushrujano daney satya prana nirakshane.

Chatushpadaha pravrit shcha dharmaha shreyobhiyatsyate…… 44

Tesham labhdhanumana nan guneshu parivartatam.

Swadu kimambiti vijnaya dharma evam vadishyati…… 45

Yatha hanihi kramatprapta tatha vriddhi kramagata.

Pragrihita yato dharmey pravatsyanti kritayugam…… 46

MEANING: The potency of sense organs shall diminish due to widespread diseases and since one’s life span too will shorten there will be anguish everywhere. They will yearn to associate and have sacred Darshan of great sages and shall imbibe their precious teachings. Since people will be diseased and all social contacts decreasing people will start uttering only truth. Since they shall be jobless they will observe righteousness and true religious principles. Since people shall fear shorter life spans and attacks of illnesses they will repent and shall give away a lot in philanthropy. Since they will speak sweet words of truth when they will imbibe a sense of selfless world service and when Dharma shall arrive with all its 4 legs at that time their minds will say that to behave un righteously is indeed erroneous and is wholesome to act righteously. At such times everyone will teach only righteousness and they too shall act righteously. The way in which righteousness gets eroded sequentially in the same way step by step righteousness shall augment and when everyone shall become righteous it will be called Satyuga or Golden Era. When both Satyuga and righteousness arrive in full throttle joy and wealth automatically shall arrive in the lives of world humans. In the same way the entire world will be happy and ooze with qualities of a Golden Era.

In the Harivansh Purana’s Bhavishya Purana (Chapter 4, Verses 12 to 19) the end of this era has been mentioned. Following is a glimpse of it:

Murkha swarthaparalubdha kshudrahakshudra paricchada.

Vyavaharopakrit shchachyutam dhacchi shashwatat.

Hataraha para ratnanam para dara paharakaha.

Kamatmano duratmanaha sopadhaha priya sahasaha.

MEANING: World humanity shall become foolish, selfish, greedy, full of lowly desires, shall behave tainted, fallen from true eternal religion, shall rob others wealth, will lure women other than their wives lewdly, lustful, wicked souls, thug like and those executing terrible acts.

Vipra rupani rakshansi rajan karna bhedinaha.

Prithvimapu bhokshyanti yugante samupasthite.

Nihmva syayabab shatkaram arnayashchabhi maninaha.

Vipraha kruvyad rupena sarva bhaksha vritha vrataha.

MEANING: Wicked demonic people putting on the garb of Brahmins shall roam around freely, kings will believe in hearsays and Brahmins by renouncing self introspection studies and religious deeds shall surrender to dishonesty and arrogance. They all like crows and eagles shall eat food that should not be devoured (meat and flesh) and shall perform unwholesome rites and rituals. All this shall happen when that era is about to end.

Mahayuddham mahanandam mahavarsha mahabhayam.

Bhavishyati yugey kshiney tatkashathamya lakshanam.

MEANING: Gigantic wars shall be waged cannons/bombs and other fiery weapons shall boom aloud, there shall be either torrential rains or famines, there shall be communal strife, looting and fire like fearful situations shall erupt everywhere. Such types of scenes shall be witnessed at the end of that era.

 

CALCULATION OF YUGAS FROM OTHER RELIGIOUS TEXTS:

The great teacher of Sikh religion Shri Gurugobind Singhji in the 10th Granth Sahib and in other places has opined that Kaliyuga shall end in Samvat 2000. He has called this time period as Samvat.

Khalifa Jamasya of Prophet Zoroaster in his book ‘Jamasyanama’ has written:

When sun, moon and Jupiter shall enter Kark Zodiac Sign a great soul will take birth and he shall spread justice and happiness all over the world. The world shall then renounce all sinful acts. This very Yoga has been mentioned in the text Shrimad Bhagwat as the end of Kaliyuga or Dark Age. This corresponds to Samvat 2000.

Lama Yogis of Tibet too have faith that very soon the Chambal Yuga or Golden Era shall commence and that truth will gain victory over falsehood.

In Jewish religious scriptures such descriptions are given wherein it is said that in these days the Guegajar Yuga or Golden Era shall manifest.

The Bahais of Iran have faith that these contemporary times of today are the hour of Golden Era or Satyuga to dawn.

Japanese Buddhists believe that from the year 1936 AD Abtiri or Golden Era has already appeared.

In an Arabic book called ‘Mala bud kablut kayamat’ the signs that manifest before Quayamat or Day of Judgement (World Annihilation) appears are thus:

Apart from deep sleep state none shall experience peace in the waking state. The people of East shall laud Westerners. Women shall demand equal rights as men enjoy. Iron shall be more precious than gold. A new metal akin to silver shall come into vogue. It will not be looked upon undesirable to sit in bazaars and eat food. Women by giving up the veil shall roam around freely. People will sleep right till noon. It will be possible for humans to fly in air just as birds do. It will be very easy to send messages to far off places merely in a few moments. For eating there will be hands of iron and bedsteads too shall be of iron. Vehicles shall be such that despite being without living animals like horses etc yet journeys of thousands of miles shall be executed. People shall not respect their parents, religion shall be rendered obsolete and when the sun comes to ‘Sava neje’ people will adore its light.

All above mentioned can be witnessed today. Via electrical lighting the sun has come to ‘Sava neje’ and everyone likes it.

In Mecca’s Hamidiya Library one can find a book called ‘Alkshfa valktmafi marfat’. In it is written:

When fights, agitations and infidelity shall rise alarmingly a great man shall appear. He will ooze with spiritual divine powers. He will render obsolete all fire based weapons. In every nook and corner of the world he shall gain victory. He shall find no need to take his army to all regions. Soul power itself will prove enough for him. The entire world shall avidly listen to him. He shall render planet earth heavenly and the aged shall become youthful.

The same type of description can be found in a text called ‘Imame akhikjjama’.

As per Islamic sacred literature around Samvat 2000 Quayamat shall manifest. Over here Quayamat means that no sinner will exist in this world. In a well known book of Medina called ‘Maqsoom Bukhari’ it is said:

In the 2/3rd part of 14th century of Hijri year Quayamat shall manifest and Hazrat Mehendi shall appear in this world.

1/3rd portion of every century is made up of 33 years and 4 months. 2/3rd portion is of 66 years and 8 months. On Shravan Amavasya of Vikrami 2000 the date of Rajab month of Hijri year 1363 is 28. In this manner this calculation too corresponds to end of Kaliyuga or Dark Age in Samvat 2000 as mentioned in Hindu scriptures.

The above mentioned mathematical calculations of time and analysis makes it clear that those situations experienced by us all in today’s times is the Samkranti time (Era Junction) which is full of merits. In it lies end of Kaliyuga or Dark Age and sacred commencement of Satyuga or Golden Era. In the very near future ere we actually witness its radiant light one should get least mind boggled by it.

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